I can remember one particular lunch period sitting in my office at Baylor College of Dentistry studying Genesis 1. Those dental students had asked me to explain to them what God meant in verses 6-8a. How often we read the Bible but don’t really think about what it says. As I studied these verses, I realized that I didn’t know quite what they were saying. Here is what the Bible says:
And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.
And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.
And God called the firmament Heaven (Gen.1:6-8a).
It says God divided the waters and put some water above the firmament (heaven, 1:8a) and left some water under the firmament. What is this firmament? Genesis 1:20 reads:
And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.
The expanse or firmament of Genesis 1:7 may be the open heaven of Genesis 1:20 where the birds fly around. Now, there are several views and different interpretations of these Genesis verses, but the one that seems to make the most sense to me, and the one that I believe, is this: God separated the waters that covered the earth in the beginning and left some water on the earth and put some water up above the air where the birds fly.
Explaining The Waters Above
Before we go much farther, let us clarify the uses of the Hebrew word that is translated as expanse or firmament or heaven. There are three different heavens that are mentioned in the Bible: 1) atmospheric heaven, 2) the heaven where the stars are (stellar heaven), and 3) the third heaven where God lives (paradise). This third heaven is referred to in 2 Corinthians.
I knew a man in Christ above fourteen years ago…such a one caught up to the third heaven. …How that he was caught up into paradise (2 Cor. 12:2b, 4a).
Psalm 19:1 calls our attention to both the atmospheric and stellar heavens:
The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament showeth his handiwork [Emphasis mine].
Beneficial Effects Of A Water Canopy
What are some beneficial effects of this water canopy above atmospheric heaven? If it were a water vapor canopy, there would be some protection from cosmic radiation, etc. But if it were liquid water, it would provide maximum protection. This might help explain 900-year life spans before the Flood. Water filters out many of the harmful rays of the sun, which might speed up the aging process. For example, water blocks alpha and beta radiation penetration. Liquid water in combination with the ozone layer would block most of the ultra violet radiations from the sunlight. Combine this with filtering of the alpha and beta radiation, and earth would have been a much healthier place to live before the Flood!
Many creationists (myself included for many years) believed this water canopy could have been water vapor instead of liquid water. Water vapor initially seemed to be a more logical way to keep the water suspended above the atmosphere. Creation scientists such as Drs. Larry Vardiman, Russell Humphrys, John Baumgardner, Michael Oard, etc., have introduced problems with the water vapor canopy model and may have eliminated it as a possibility. Liquid water turns out to be a better explanation.86
Another advantage of the water canopy is the hyperbaric (increased pressure) effect. The weight of the water above would have increased atmospheric pressure on earth and perhaps even the oxygen content in the air. (As to increased oxygen content, scientists have found little bubbles of air in ancient amber, and the air bubbles had as much as 32% oxygen, whereas the air we breathe today in heaven and earth system #2 is about 20% oxygen.) The water canopy may have more than doubled atmospheric pressure. In this environment of heavier atmospheric pressure and higher oxygen, healing would be more efficient. Many hospitals have pressurized rooms called Hyperbaric Rooms. Into these rooms increased oxygen content is pumped under pressure and healing is miraculously speeded up. Very sick people and the severely burned are treated in this high pressure and oxygen rich environment.87
God could have made the canopy exactly the right thickness and distance from earth to enable plants to get enough light energy for their photosynthesis while blocking the harmful radiation and the excessive heat. If the water of the canopy were in the form of liquid water (perhaps under the ozone layer but above where the birds fly), it would have made heaven-and-earth system #1 (before the Flood) similar to a giant terrarium. There would have been no rain! And what does the Bible say? Genesis 2:6: “But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground.” That is the exact effect expected if a water canopy surrounded the earth: a morning mist would form. Genesis 2:5b is more specific: “...for the Lord God had not caused it to rain upon the earth.” No rain, therefore no rainbow! Heaven-and-earth system #1 was obviously different from our present system, system #2.
The Greenhouse Effect
With a water canopy, a greenhouse effect would be expected due to the heat generated by the sun-warmed canopy. Is there any evidence that greenhouse warmth once surrounded our globe? Palm tree fossils have been found in Alaska and broad leaf ferns in the Arctic. How could a palm tree fossil be in Alaska? Some scientists have postulated they traveled there on the tectonic plate (earth crust) movement over millions of years. But these trees are not millions of years old! A creationist would say, “No problem, palm trees grew in Alaska in the tropical world before the Flood.” These trees were buried during the Flood of Noah’s day resulting in their fossilization. (It has recently been suggested that these fossils traveled to Alaska on extremely rapid tectonic plate movement instead of slow movement. This writer still thinks that they grew there.)
Scientists have found tropical forests and coal deposits in Antarctica. How did they get there if plants in past history did not grow there? Fruit trees that were quick-frozen and over ninety feet in height with green leaves have been found in the New Siberian Islands where, today, only one-inch high willows grow.88 In these frigid zones, many trees (some fossilized and some quick-frozen) have been found in flood sediments with rings, signifying rapid, warm temperature growth. The Evolutionist asks, “How did they get here?” A Creationist might say, “They grew there before the Flood when the earth was pole to pole greenhouse warm.”
A Runaway Greenhouse Effect?
Of course, the idea of a water canopy will bring objections from some scientists, even creationist scientists. Would there be a problem of overheating causing a runaway green house effect? Some scientists believe that a water canopy of any kind would generate too much heat coming in to earth’s atmosphere and not enough escaping, resulting in overheating and death to all life on earth. Could our Creator have designed Adam’s world with a suspended water canopy (liquid, not vapor) that did not generate too much heat for life to exist?
If the water canopy was under the ozone layer [if it was above the ozone layer, this crucial protective barrier may have been destroyed when the water came down through the ozone at the Flood, and, depending on how far into space the canopy was located, there may have been a vacuum above it which would permit the water to evaporate rapidly out into space and the canopy would disappear], the liquid water in the canopy might actually be a heat and radiation shield. It would physically block off some amount of heat. The heat energy during the daylight part of the day could be absorbed as the water on the outer surface of the canopy evaporated. The water could then re-condense during the coolness of the night. Because of the ozone layer above the water canopy, the evaporated water would not escape into outer space.
This canopy model would actually function like a giant “heat pump” air conditioning and heating unit. In the summer, the heat in the house is picked up by the refrigerant and carried outside. The house stays cool. In the winter, the heat in the air outside the house is picked up and brought inside. The house stays warm. Water picks up heat slowly and releases heat slowly. That is why the sea breeze during the middle of a hot summer day is still cool while the inland breeze is terribly hot and vice versa during the cooler nighttime. The daylight side of the earth would be warm and the dark side cool. The differences in temperature between the two sides would balance each other out.
Even today, water in the sky (clouds) moderates the temperature here on earth. On an overcast spring day, the cloud cover can regulate the air temperature from varying by 15-20 degrees between daylight and nighttime to as little as a 2 degree difference. For example, Cleveland, Ohio, in April of 1999, had a temperature high of 70 degrees and on the same day, a low of 68 degrees as compared with 75 degrees for a high and 55 degrees for a low on clear day and night. There was only a 2-degree difference in a 24-hour period because of the cloud cover. The sun was still up there heating the top of those clouds, but under the clouds the temperature remained quite stable!
Water can absorb great amounts of heat. In the steel mills water is used to cool molten steel. One kilogram of water can cool down several kilograms of molten steel by 1,000 degrees. In the dental lab, water is used to cool and temper molten metals because it is so efficient at absorbing heat.
Our creator placed the earth and the sun in just the right relationship to each other (distance and size) and quite possibly with a water canopy above that part of the atmosphere where the birds fly, but below the ozone layer. Considering all the factors that we just discussed, we can conclude that overheating should not be a reason for us to reject the water canopy idea. This is a matter of faith. We cannot duplicate it or make it happen today, but we can believe God when he says he put water up above where birds fly. Just because current science cannot explain all the ramifications of a water canopy is no reason for us to say the canopy never existed.
The Great Dinosaur Mystery
Evolution has a problem called The Great Dinosaur Mystery. Where did the great dinosaurs come from? How did they grow so big? If it is “survival of the fittest,” why did these powerful creatures become extinct?
A creationist would answer, “no problem.” God created the giant reptiles and may have referred to one or two of them that existed in Job’s day (see Job 40:15-41:34). In the pre-Flood, high efficiency atmosphere, reptiles could have grown to immense sizes, giant flying creatures could have flown more easily, and gigantism would have been much more likely.89
Reptiles do not have a built-in, growth-inhibiting factor like other animals and man. The dinosaurs would have continued growing as long as they lived. The older they got, the bigger they grew. God created large reptiles. Reptiles function best (cold-blooded animals) in warm temperature climates. These reptiles kept growing in an efficient high-pressure atmosphere with plenty of warmth, with unlimited supplies of lush vegetation to eat, and with nothing to eat them. The Bible says,
And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat (Genesis 1:30).
This indicates that all animals ate plants, not flesh, before the Flood. Of course, the Flood was after the Fall, and some animals may have eaten flesh because of sin or perhaps some were scavengers. But, God did not give His permission for meat eating until after the Flood (Genesis 9:1-5).
Plants themselves are a testimony to God’s creative genius. They start as a seed. They take dirt, water, air and sunshine and are converted into roses, rubber and rhubarb! And these incredible factories not only do not pollute the environment, but they silently clean the air and replenish it with life-supporting oxygen. Oh, the wonders of the God of all creation!
Meat-Eating After The Flood
It was only after the Flood that God gave permission to eat flesh. “Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you; even as the green herb have I given you all things” (Genesis 9:3). Nothing ate the dinosaurs before the Flood, and they had bounteous vegetation as food. They, therefore, could grow to great size during a long lifetime of hundreds of years. Even Tyrannosaurus rex ate plants, not other dinosaurs, before the Flood. The textbook pictures of this great dinosaur eating another reptile are not based on scientific method and are not supported with factual information. Tyrannosaurus most probably was a vegetarian (at least before the Flood, Genesis 1:29, 30) and used his long sharp teeth to strip leaves from plants. After the Flood, with the change in atmospheric pressure, these reptiles could never again grow so huge. The lighter atmosphere (the weighty canopy came down as rain water at the Flood), cooler average temperature, and predators would prevent long life and excessive size.
Warm Blooded Dinosaurs?
In recent years, some evolutionists have postulated that dinosaurs were warm-blooded, not cold-blooded creatures. Warm-blooded dinosaurs have been proposed because scientists are beginning to realize that 100,000-pound cold-blooded creatures do not and could not exist in our environment. There is not enough air pressure to enable their blood to circulate properly. Somehow an important fact has escaped the notice of these evolutionists (or they are “willingly ignorant,” 2 Peter 3:5). The fact is these huge reptiles would have had no problem thriving in the warm, high-pressure atmosphere of system #1. The big ones went into extinction after the Great Flood. It is not politically correct for an evolutionist to believe that the universal Flood of Noah’s day actually happened. Belief in the Flood is grounds for dismissal from your job or cancellation of your grants. So, the evolutionist is left to speculate regarding “The Great Dinosaur Mystery,” whereas the creationist has a valid, scientifically testable position—the environmental differences between system #1 and system #2.
Evolutionists may have theorized that warm-blooded dinosaurs would solve their dilemma, but recent research indicates that the giant reptiles were cold-blooded as are all reptiles to this day. The Dallas Morning News, March 21, 1994, p. 9-D, reported that three University of Pennsylvania paleontologists have published their view (in Nature magazine) that “...dinosaurs...were probably cold-blooded....” This is a blow to the evolutionist’s dream of solving the mystery of these huge creatures! Of course, if you wait a few days some other evolutionary scientists will refute his colleagues’ position. Evolutionists keep batting this “warm-blooded” or “cold-blooded” idea back and forth. The Dallas Morning News, July 11, 1994, p. 7-D, published a review by science reporter, Matt Crenson, of a July 1994 Nature magazine article. The review is partially quoted here:
Tyrannosaurus rex had a stable body temperature, a new study shows, suggesting that the largest terrestrial carnivore was warm-blooded.
Reese E. Barrick and William J. Showers of North Carolina State University in Raleigh studied Tyrannosaurus bones uncovered in the rocks of the Hell Creek Formation in eastern Montana...
The remarkable consistency of the oxygen isotopes in the dinosaur’s bones demonstrate that its body temperature never varied by more than about 7 degrees Fahrenheit, the North Carolina researchers wrote last week in Nature. If Montana’s seasons were anywhere near as variable 70 million years ago, when Tyrannosaurus lived, as they are today, a creature with such a stable body temperature would have had to be warm-blooded.
A creationist might say that a stable body temperature in a giant cold-blooded reptile is consistent with the creationist view that the earth’s temperature was uniformly warm in the tropical pre-Flood heaven and earth system number one. Creationists would expect to find “...remarkable consistency of the oxygen isotopes in the dinosaur’s bones....” Apparently these evolutionistic researchers would rather pretend that cold-blooded reptiles were actually warm-blooded than to consider the pre-Flood pole-to-pole greenhouse warm condition of earth (6,000 years ago, not 70 million years ago) as presented by this creationist model.
By the way, did you know that there never was an actual dinosaur called Brontosaurus? Brontosaurus fooled the scientific community for many, many years. It turned out to be the head of one creature and the body of another. The evolutionary community was too embarrassed to admit this mistake for more than fifty years. Brontosaurus does not appear in many new textbooks. (See The Dallas Morning News, October 11, 1979, p. 44a.)
The giant flying reptiles such as the pterosaurs (pterodactyls and pteranodons) would be unable to fly in our present atmosphere. They needed a heavier atmosphere to get enough air to lift them with their 40 to 50-foot wingspans. Heaven-and-earth system #1 would have provided the heavier atmospheric pressure necessary for the flight of these huge creatures. Evolutionists say we don’t know how these giant reptiles could have flown in our atmosphere. To a creationist, this is not a problem. Heaven-and-earth system #1, before the water canopy came down at the Flood of Noah’s day, would have provided the air density needed for these huge creatures to fly.
In order to protect their jobs, the evolutionists dare not even suggest the global Flood of Noah’s day as part of the solution to their problems, and yet the Flood supplies the explanation for what we “see.” We even read in our older history books about many ancient cultures that taught a global flood.
Gigantism was common in the heavy pre-flood atmosphere. Fossil dragonflies with a 32-inch wingspan have been discovered and would be a frightful bug to hit your windshield! The hornless rhinoceros grew to about “...seventeen feet high and nearly thirty feet long!”90 Giant sabre-toothed tigers, mastodons and woolly mammoths roamed the earth side-by-side with the great dinosaurs.
Man And Dinosaur Coexist?
Man lived during the age of the dinosaurs. In cretaceous rock strata of the Paluxy River bottom near Glen Rose, Texas, human and dinosaur footprints have been found crisscrossing each other. Much has been said about these footprints because, if authentic, they prove in solid rock that man and dinosaur lived at the same time. If accepted as genuine, these footprints deal a fatal blow to evolution. They are proof that evolution is a false speculation of man! Most textbooks claim that the dinosaurs became extinct about 60 or 70 million years before man stepped onto the scene and into his footprints. Dinosaur and human footprints crisscrossing each other in the same rock strata destroys the evolutionary belief that over a period of millions of years, man evolved from his ancient reptilian ancestors!
Two Texas scientists have sectioned (cut into slices of rock) one of these human footprints. Carl Baugh and Don Patton discovered that the rock under the footprints shows pressure structures (called laminations). These pressure structures are exactly what a scientist would expect to find surrounding a human footprint! The human prints (and there are many) are not “carved” into the riverbed and neither are the dinosaur prints.91
In the summer of 1993, Drs. Patton and Baugh noticed eleven and one-half inch long human footprints (people have feet that big today) stepping along—left, right, left, right— inside giant three-toed dinosaur prints. Someone was walking in the soft mud of fresh dinosaur tracks! One of the tracks shows in rock the human footprint beside the dinosaur track. Apparently the person got “side-tracked” and missed one dinosaur print, but got back “on track” for his next step. These footprints are conclusive, hard, observable evidence that man and dinosaurs walked the earth simultaneously. For a while, The Humanist magazine had discredited these Paluxy River footprints to the extent that creationists withdrew their articles and films (a good film documenting the footprints is entitled Footprints in Stone). The summer of 1993 work by Drs. Baugh and Patton should put the shoe back on the other foot! Contact Dr. Don Patton90 for the incredible account of how several of the footprints (but not all) were destroyed by an overly threatened evolutionist attempting to “...suppress the truth….”
Proverbs 14:12 tells us that, “There is a way which seemeth right unto a man, but the end thereof are the ways of death.” Evolutionists travel to Glen Rose, Texas, and examine the human and dinosaur footprints side-by-side or overlapped with each other in cretaceous rock. They then concoct foolish speculations, rather than bow their knees and heads before their Creator who told us all that dinosaurs and humans existed together on the sixth day of the creation week. The Bible teaches that man and dinosaur shared the same earth at the same time (Genesis 1). This presents no difficulty since those giant creatures ate only plants before the Flood! In the early days of His creation, God prevented animals from eating each other or man, since He purposed to fill the earth with His creatures.
Another evidence to support the fact that people and dinosaurs lived at the same time in history is the cave paintings of dinosaurs. How could a “pre-historic” man or woman paint a picture of a dinosaur if he or she had never seen one? The Institute for Creation Research (www.ICR.org) and Answers in Genesis (www.answersingenesis.org) circulate excellent videos documenting the cave drawings of dinosaurs.
Longevity Of Life
Another result of the water being above the firmament in which the birds fly would be the shielding effect from cosmic radiation. Scientists have studied how much solar radiation is filtered by water. Dr. Joseph Dillow reports their conclusions in his book, The Waters Above: Earth’s Pre-Flood Water Vapor Canopy. In heaven-and-earth system #1, people could live to be very old. Some scientists believe that one of the primary aging factors is solar radiation. By filtering out the harmful radiation (as a water canopy would do), humans might be able to live close to 1,000 years.
The Bible reports that Adam died at 930 years of age and that Methuselah lived almost 1,000 years. After the Flood, the ages of people dropped off drastically to an average of 70 to 80 years. A lot of people think that you cannot believe the Bible when it says people lived to be 800 or 900 years old— that it must be a different kind of year or the writer did not know quite what he was talking about. Isaac Asimov, for one, said Adam did not personally live 930 years, but that his tribe lived that long.
Those old ages are 360-day years just like the Bible says (compare Genesis 7:11 and 8:3,4).92 You can believe the Bible as it is written. Some present-day researchers who study longevity of life believe that humans could live that long again if we were sheltered from the harmful effects of the sun and the now polluted air (plus eliminate most of our mutations and disorders).
Solar shielding by the water canopy above the atmosphere where the birds fly would also affect dating techniques. Negligible amounts (or none at all) of carbon 14 (C14) would have formed before the Flood.93
This pre-Flood water canopy can also explain one of the sources of water for the Flood. The water that God separated from the water on the surface of the earth when he said “let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters” on day two of the creation week, rained down providing some of the Flood waters (Genesis 1:6-8).
The Collapse Of The Water Canopy
And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights
Either during or shortly after the canopy collapse (and Flood), a sudden and permanent temperature drop would occur on earth. The climate would change from being pole-to-pole greenhouse warm (heaven-and-earth system #1) to having frozen ice caps and moderate temperature (heaven-and-earth system #2). But what might have caused the water canopy to come down as rain? Several theories exist, although, of course, God does not need a naturalistic cause. He could just sovereignly command the rains of the Flood to pour down by His omnipotent power. It is possible that there was a physical mechanism that caused this liquid water canopy to disintegrate and come down as rain. For example, a cataclysmic number of simultaneous volcanic eruptions caused by the fracture of the earth’s crust could be one such force. One proposed idea for the precipitation of the rain is that a meteorite slammed into the earth, shooting great clouds of dust up into the water. The dust particles would provide the nuclei of condensation for the raindrops and would cause the canopy to come down. Along with this idea is the suggestion that the earth tipped 23½ degrees off dead center during this meteor’s impact, resulting in frozen ice caps and the four seasons.
Another theory holds that a large number of volcanoes erupted simultaneously around the earth, and the volcanic dust provided the particles for the condensation of the vapor into rain. Perhaps all of these cataclysmic events were happening at the same time—the meteor hit the earth, fracturing the earth’s crust, which in turn gave birth to multiple volcanoes.
If there was volcanic activity at the time of the Flood, then volcanic ash would be expected in deep, old ice and frozen muck. In the antarctic94 and arctic, the oldest ice and muck is saturated with volcanic ash. The creationist position holds water. In 1893, just one volcano, Krakatau,95 lowered the average global temperature five degrees for a year. Dust from Krakatau shot 30 miles up into the atmosphere and a series of tidal waves washed across the seas with the greatest being 120 feet high. This incredible wave pushed several miles inland on Java and Sumatra.
If the dust from one volcano (Krakatau) could lower the temperature of the earth for an entire year, what might be the chaos and cataclysm of hundreds of volcanoes erupting simultaneously? Could it be that the Bible is describing volcanic activity when it tells us that on the seventeenth day of the second month: “...the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up” (Genesis 7:11)? This was the first day of a sudden and permanent temperature drop, the effects of which are in evidence to this day.
Science News (July 6, 1991, Vol. 140, #1, p. 7) headlines:
VOLCANO COULD COOL CLIMATE, REDUCE OZONE
The article states: “The eruption of Mt. Pinatubo could chill the Earth slightly for the next few years and hasten the destruction of the ozone layer over large portions of the world, say scientists” (p. 7). Scientific literature refers to the “Ring of Fire.” Several thousand years ago, volcanoes erupted simultaneously all around the world. What caused this cataclysmic ring of fire? Could this have been the “seventeenth day of the second month?”
Quick Frozen Animals
Evolutionary science has no answer for the existence of many quick-frozen animals found in various places around the globe. Among these frozen animals are rhinoceros, hyena, oxen, sabre-toothed tigers, hippopotamus, bison, donkeys, leopards, ibex and giant woolly mammoths. What is a quick-frozen rhinoceros doing in Siberia? Is it that he was on a little summer vacation and before he could get back to Africa, got caught in a freezing blizzard? No, there were tropical animals living in Siberia before the Flood of Noah’s day! The earth was pole-to-pole greenhouse warm under the water canopy. This presents an immense problem for evolutionists. [Except for ones that claim the frozen carcasses traveled there by rapid tectonic plate movement from more tropical climates. This might transport them there, but how did they get quick-frozen in the tropics?]
What happened back then to quick-freeze tropical plants and animals in Siberia? None of these frozen “fossil” animals are transitional-form animals. All of these very ancient animals are discrete entities. They are instantly and easily classified as bison or mammoths. “Well,” say evolutionists, “It must have been a slowly creeping ice age that caught up to these animals.”
The frozen animal remains do not represent a slowly creeping ice age. They were caught and permanently frozen (they are still frozen today) with such incredible speed that undigested plants remained in their mouths and in their stomach’s digestive juices. Giant wooly mammoths have been discovered with undigested buttercups in their mouths and in their stomachs, which are still identifiable as to genus and species of the plant (see Dillow, footnote #88)!
What would it take to quick-freeze a happy, healthy mammoth grazing on buttercups (and several hundred other identifiable plants, which no longer grow in the frigid climate where the frozen mammoths are found)? Some scientists went to a major food-freezing company and posed this question. The answer does not fit into the known realities of heaven-and-earth system #2 (our present system).
To quick-freeze a huge, warm-blooded animal (munching on buttercups), it would take a temperature of -175ºF (the coldest temperature ever recorded on earth is near -128ºF) and a wind-chill factor caused by a 200-400 mph wind over a time frame of about four hours (eight hours at the outside limit). The problem is that there is nothing on earth that approaches these conditions that are necessary to freeze the animals—and yet the animals are frozen. To preserve the meat and undigested plants, drastic conditions not known on our present earth would have been necessary for the quick-freeze.
The freezing of these ancient plants and animals was not caused by a slowly creeping ice age. Many textbooks will show an artist’s imaginary picture of a mammoth standing in a blizzard with a slowly creeping glacier moving up from behind. This is imagination, not reality. The mammoths were warm-temperature animals, eating warm-temperature plants in a warm-temperature climate that suddenly, in a matter of hours, became permanently frozen.
M. L. Ryder documents another interesting fact about mammoths:
The scarcity of hair in the modern elephant is associated with a corrugation of the epidermis, and a lack of skin glands. Although the mammoth, too,...lacked glands, the increase of the hair was associated with a loss of the epidermal corrugation....
Sections cut parallel to the skin surface revealed sparse, round, non-medullated hairs with no glands or erector muscles.96
Mammoth skin has been dissected and, to the surprise of evolutionists, it contains no sebaceous (oil) glands. Why should this be a surprise? Because cold temperature animals have a plentiful supply of oil glands to oil their hair and fur. Wolves, polar bears and seals have such oily fur that the frigid northern water rolls off and does not penetrate to the skin.
Cold temperature animals need a lot of oil to protect them from the wet cold. A mammoth could not last very long in a frigid climate without oil in its hair. It was a warm-temperature animal, eating warm-temperature plants, which was caught suddenly and frozen quickly and permanently in the distant past. Evolution provides no answer for this! A slowly creeping ice age is not a sufficient explanation for the quick-frozen animals—but a cataclysm, such as would have resulted with the collapse of the water canopy and the cataclysmic release of the fountains of the deep at the Flood of Noah’s day, provides the answer and the evidence.
An animal with no oil glands in its skin cannot survive in a frigid climate. But an animal with oil glands can survive in frigid or tropical climates. Leopards have oil glands and can survive in tropical climates. Yet, their pelts have been used to make fur coats that are quite warm in winter. Polar bears survive in zoos in the intense summer heat of southern states.
These mammoths (and many other animals) were frozen so quickly that their meat can still be eaten.
In many instances, as is well known, entire carcasses of the mammoth have been found thus buried, with the hair, skin and flesh as fresh as in frozen New Zealand sheep in the hold of a steamer. And sleigh dogs as well as Yakuts themselves, have often made a hearty meal of mammoth flesh thousands of years old.97
This sudden and permanent temperature change from pole-to-pole greenhouse warm to the present perma-frost or permanent ice condition at and near the poles could have happened during the collapse of the water canopy at the Flood-judgment of God in the days of Noah. When the earth’s crust fractured, massive volcanism would have occurred, accompanied with intense plumes of steam (See the writings of Dr. John Baumgardner at ICR and AIG). The plumes of steam would have been shooting up into the canopy and breaking through in places.
The first penetrations of the water canopy, whether by steam or volcanic activity, would have generated an effect similar to the puncturing of an air conditioner’s Freon line. Instant freezing! The break-up of the canopy could have permitted heat to rapidly escape our atmosphere. This produced the frozen poles that have preserved for us animal and plant life (now extinct), which existed in heaven-and-earth system #1. Evolution has no good answer for the sudden death of the frozen animals. The Bible would lead me to believe these things happened around the time of the Flood destruction of heaven and earth system #1 (See: 2 Peter 3).
Bless the Lord, O my soul.
O Lord my God, thou art very great;
Thou art clothed with honour and majesty….
Who laid the foundations of the earth,
That it should not be removed for ever.
Thou coveredst it with the deep as with a garment:
The waters stood above the mountains.
At thy rebuke they fled;
At the voice of thy thunder they hasted away.
They go up by the mountains;
They go down by the valleys unto the place which thou hast founded for them.
Thou hast set a bound that they may not pass over;
That they turn not again to cover the earth
(Psalm 104:1, 5-9).
Michael Oard believes that the frozen animals and plants were entombed in the years following the Flood. The seas would have been warmer after the cracking of the earth’s crust during the Flood. Evaporation from the warmer oceans would have caused huge temperature differences at the poles. This in turn would bring on mighty blizzards and the ice age.98
Where Did All The Water Go?
This naturally raises another question: where did all the canopy water go after the Flood? The answer is in Psalm 104:8,9 as quoted above. After the Flood, the water from the canopy was contained in the deep ocean valleys that sank down and the underground aquifers that remain to this day. Does that mean there was less water and more shallow seas on the surface of the earth before the Flood? Yes, that seems to be the indication.
Objections To A Water Canopy
Some creationists object to the idea of a water canopy surrounding planet earth before the Great Flood. They look at present phenomena and the current laws of physics and cannot imagine how a water canopy could remain suspended above our atmosphere. There are many things in God’s creation that either have not been or cannot be explained by known scientific laws!
There is the ‘Colossians 1:17 Principle.’ This verse reads, “And he is before all things, and by him all things consist (“hold together,” NASB).” Scientists, today, refer to the Colossians Principle to explain some phenomena in science. One such phenomenon is the positive charge of the protons not repelling each other in the tightly packed nucleus of the atom, and then the negatively charged electrons not crashing into the positively charged nucleus. You may have heard some scientists explain the same phenomenon by saying there are ‘gluons’ that hold the protons together and keep them from flying apart. Even if there are gluons to hold the protons together (the gluon idea is hypothetical) we are still left with the problem of electrons with their minus charge not plunging into the positively charged nucleus. So, if the liquid water canopy were in place today, we would all observe it and the scientists would find a way to explain it just like they do the proton/electron problem. They might call it the Colossians 1:17 principle or maybe they would coin a new term like‘canopy principle’ or ‘firmament principle’ or ‘raquia principle’ in their attempt to help us understand what is holding the water up there (raquia is the Hebrew word for firmament or expanse).99
There are several geological and physical explanations for the cause of the Flood based on a creationist’s view. Any one view or parts of all of the views could be true—they match what we observe (science is based on observation), but my favorite is in the Bible: “I even I do cause a Flood.” God did it! Truly He is the great “I am that I am!” (Exodus 3:14).
The Rainbow: Sign Of The Covenant
The rainbow was the perfect object for God to use as the sign of His covenantal promise of no more global floods. Remember, while the canopy was still in place, the birds were flying in the expanse under this water, there were no rainbows and one must be able to see through the water (hence not perpetual clouds). The sun, moon and many stars were visible to Adam and to Noah, in view of the fact that Genesis 1:14 states that they would serve as signs. After the collapse, God signifies something new.
And I will establish my covenant with you; neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the waters of a flood; neither shall there anymore be a flood to destroy the earth.
And God said, This is the token of the covenant which I make between me and you and every living creature that is with you, for perpetual generations:
I do set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covenant between me and the earth.
And it shall come to pass, when I bring a cloud over the earth, that the bow shall be seen in the cloud:
And I will remember my covenant, which is between me and you and every living creature of all flesh; and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh.
And the bow shall be in the cloud; and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh that is upon the earth.
And God said unto Noah, This is the token of the covenant, which I have established between me and all flesh that is upon the earth (Genesis 9:11-17).
Noah had never seen a rainbow in the clouds before the Flood, because it had never rained. If there was no canopy before the Flood, Noah would have experienced the same weather patterns that we have today. He would have already seen rainbows; therefore, the rainbow in the clouds would have been neither special nor new to Noah. After the Flood, when the canopy had collapsed during the forty days and nights of rain, Noah was in heaven-and-earth system #2, and was therefore experiencing our weather, rain and rainbows. He also would experience the difference between pre-flood system #1’s heavy atmospheric pressure and system #2’s post-flood lighter atmospheric pressure—the latter causing more rapid fermentation of alcohol and quite possibly the reason for Noah’s drunkenness.
The Bible gives us a warning in Colossians 2:8:
Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ.
We must constantly be asking ourselves, “What does the Bible say?” (one of Ken Ham’s favorite questions). Macroevolution is a philosophical system and an empty deception.100 Christians should not be taken captive by the speculative philosophy of macroevolution—there is no factual science (science not based on assumptions, see Dr. Kerkut’s assumptions in Chapter 2) to support the molecules-to-life-to-man model of origins. Yes, evolutionists present their theories as fact. They fill our textbooks with their interpretation of the history of the universe (which leaves God out). But in studying origins (where we came from), we must keep in mind that both evolution and creation are faith systems.
We must get away from thinking of evolution (molecules-to-man, ed.) as a science. It’s a philosophical world-view about the past, loaded with religious implications, which historically and presently exists in a frantic attempt to explain...that we are here without a Creator/God. It results in bad science, a denial of true history, and much misery to people and nations who have adopted it.101
Have we allowed ourselves to be brainwashed into believing that scientific facts prove evolution of molecules-to-man to be true? No one but God was there when the universe and life appeared. Let us not be led astray from the simplicity and purity of devotion to Christ (2 Cor. 11:3)!
Praise ye the Lord.
Praise ye the Lord from the heavens:
Praise him in the heights.
Praise ye him, all his angels:
Praise ye him, all his hosts.
Praise ye him, sun and moon:
Praise him, all ye stars of light.
Praise him, ye heavens of heavens,
And ye waters that be above the heavens.
Let them praise the name of the Lord:
For he commanded, and they were created
Of old hast thou laid the foundation of the earth:
the heavens are the work of thy hands
For, lo, he that formeth the mountains,
createth the wind,
declareth unto man what is his thought,
that maketh the morning darkness,
treadeth upon the high places of the earth,
The Lord, The God of hosts, is his name
The Lord hath prepared his throne in the heavens;
his kingdom ruleth over all
87 For more information about “Hyperbaric Therapy” see: J. C. Davis, “Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy,” Journal of Intensive Care Medicine, 4 (1989), 55-57. Also: Textbook of Hyperbaric Medicine, ed. K. K. Jain (Toronto: Hogrefe and Huber Pubs., 1990), p. 492. Also: Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy: A Committee Report (UHMS PUB 30 CRHOB), ed. J. T. Mader (Bethesda: Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc., 1989), p. 90.
88 Charles Hapgood, “The Mystery of the Frozen Mammoths,” from Bassett Digby, The Mammoth and Mammoth Hunting Grounds in Northeast Siberia (N.Y.: Appleton, 1926), pp. 150-151.
89 Most of my comments about the effects of the water canopy came from Dr. Joseph Dillow’s discussion of the effects of the vapor canopy in The Water’s Above: Earth’s Pre-Flood Water Vapor Canopy (Moody Press, 1982).
90 Petersen, Unlocking the Mysteries of Creation, pp. 28,29.
91 For more information about Glen Rose and the human footprints, contact: Dr. Don R. Patton at the Metroplex Institute of Origin Science, Inc. (MIOS), P.O. Box 550953, Dallas, TX 75355-0953 and Dr. Carl E. Baugh at the Creation Evidences Museum and Archaeological Excavations, P.O. Box 309, Glen Rose, Texas 76043 (817) 897-3200.
92 In Genesis 7:11, the flood began on the seventeenth day of the second month and in the seventh month on the seventeenth day (five months later) as recorded in Genesis 8:4, the ark rested on Ararat. According to Genesis 8:3, these five months included 150 days — 150 days divided by five months = 30 days in a month; 30 days x 12 months = 360 days in an Old Testament year.
93 The Institute for Creation Research is most helpful and has several different publications dealing with dating techniques. Every family should subscribe to the I.C.R. monthly newsletter, Acts and Facts, Institute for Creation Research, P.O. Box 2667, El Cajon, CA 92021 (619) 448-0900.
94 See Anthony Gow, “Glaciological Investigations in Antarctica,” Antarctic Journal of U.S., Vol. 7 No. 4 (1972), 100-101.
95 Cheryl Simon, “Krakatau 1893: The Shock Felt ‘Round the World’,” Science News, 124 (May 1983), 138.
96 M. L. Ryder, “Hair of the Mammoth,” Nature, 249 (May 10, 1974), pp. 190, 191.
97 G. Richard Lydekker, “Mammoth Ivory,” Smithsonian Reports (1899), p. 363, as reported by Dr. Joseph Dillow, The Waters Above, p. 312. (See footnote #88.)
98 For more in depth information read: Michael J. Oard, An Ice Age Caused by the Genesis Flood (El Cajon, California: Institute for Creation Research), 1990.
99 For more information concerning objections to a water vapor canopy, look up the writings of Larry Vardiman at the www.ICR.org or www.answersingenesis.org web pages. Vardiman discusses the heat problem and potential runaway greenhouse effect of a water vapor canopy.]
100 When we depart from the simplicity and purity of devotion to Christ (2 Cor. 11:3), we accept empty deceptions. Many Christians have departed from Biblical Truth to believe in Darwinian evolution or in Punctuated Equilibrium (evolution did not happen too slow to see, it happened too fast to see). Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge promote “Punctuated Equilibria” as the mode of evolution [See: “Punctuated Equilibria: the Tempo and Mode of Evolution Reconsidered,” Paleobiology, 3 (Spring 1977)]. The punctuated equilibria model (evolution is too fast to see) has been around for a long time, even though Gould seems to accept praise as the “father” of it. Punctuated equilibria is foundational to Marxist-Leninism and was seen by Marx and Lenin as essential to move people away from Biblical Truth into the vain philosophy and empty deception of Marxist-Leninism. For excellent documentation of this and Gould’s roots as a Marxist, read: The Long War Against God by Dr. Henry Morris (Baker Book House, 1989), and Understanding the Times by Dr. David Noebel (Summit Ministries, Box 207, Manitou Springs, Colorado 80829, 1991).
101 John Morris, Ph.D. (Geology), The Young Earth (Master Books, P.O. Box 26060, Colorado Springs, CO. 80917), page 25.